# Experimental Techniques: Measurement

## Experimental Techniques: Measurement

**General Principles of Measurement**

- Understand that
**measurement**in chemistry is crucial for accuracy and reliability. **Qualitative**measurements describe qualities or characteristics (e.g. colour), while**quantitative**measurements provide numerical data (e.g. mass, volume).- Understand the importance of
**precision**(consistent results) and**accuracy**(closeness to the true value).

**Measurement Instruments**

- Recognise common instruments such as the
**Bunsen burner**,**test tubes**,**pipettes**, and**burettes**. - Know the use and accuracy of measuring tools like
**balance**(for mass),**graduated cylinder**(for liquid volume), and**thermometer**(for temperature).

**Units and Conversion**

- Understand the
**SI units**for common measurements:**metres**for length,**kilograms**for mass,**seconds**for time,**Kelvin**for temperature. - Be familiar with the
**conversion**between different units, e.g. millilitres to litres.

**Errors and Uncertainties in Measurement**

- Distinguish between
**random errors**(unpredictable, can be minimised with repeated trials) and**systematic errors**(consistent, due to faulty equipment or method). - Understand significance of
**percentage error**in measurements.

**Scientific Notation and Significant Figures**

- Understand the use of
**scientific notation**(also known as standard form) for handling very large or very small numbers. - Be familiar with
**significant figures**and their implication in ensuring the precision of measurements.

**Data Representation and Interpretation**

- Know how to
**tabulate data**clearly and systematically. - Understand how to plot and interpret
**graphs**from collected data. - Be able to identify
**trends and patterns**in data.