Audience, Purpose and Tone


Audience: ____Who is the text for? Who would read the text?

Purpose:__ Why are you writing the text? What are you trying to achieve?__

Tone:__ How formal does the text need to be? How should the text sound? Consider if it should have an emotional viewpoint or not.__

__ ‘Apt’ means appropriate. A text must suit the audience, purpose and tone. __

E.g. Formal language would not be appropriate for a children’s television programme.


All texts are written for a reason. It is important to consider what that reason might be.

Persuade and Argue __- you are trying to convince the audience to think, do or believe something__

Inform __- telling the audience about a topic__

Describe __- allowing the audience to picture something themselves__

Instruct __- telling the audience how to do something__

Entertain __- engaging the audience emotionally. It could make them laugh, cry or feel tense.__

All texts have more than one purpose. What are the purposes of the following texts:
Your answer should include: A leaflet - inform you about a topic but probably persuade or advise you on how to handle a situation / An autobiography - inform about a person but also to entertain you / A poster - inform about a situation and possibly advise or instruct
Explanation: A leaflet An autobiography A poster


Transactional writing is writing for a ‘real-life’ scenario.


Formal letters have conventional structures. They could be any purpose.

1, The Hill,



M20 4HJ

18th October 2018


Grant Street,

New York,


Note, your address is on the right-hand side, with the date underneath. Their address is on the left-hand side, underneath your personal address.

Use ‘Yours faithfully’ when using ‘Dear Sir/Madam’ and use ‘Yours sincerely’ when using the personal name.


The written form of an extended piece of spoken language.


  1. Place the address of the recipient at the top.
  2. Place your own email address underneath
  3. Write in a subject heading
  4. Begin writing.


To: [email protected]

From: [email protected]

Subject: Complaint

Dear Mr Price,

I am writing….


Who might be the audience be of a President Trump speech?

Explanation: It would depend who he is addressing. It might be a group of people who are in favour of Donald Trump. They might be people who are informed and educated on politics; however, it may be the opposite.
What might the purpose of a complaint letter be?
Your answer should include: It would be to inform the manufacturer of the fault. However / you might be arguing that you should be due a refund.
What might the tone of a complaint letter be?
It would need to be formal and professional. You might sound particularly angry and disgusted by the fault.
What is the purpose of a letter from a bank?
Your answer should include: It would probably be to inform you of a situation. However / they may be trying to persuade you to open a new bank account or to make changes to your existing account.
What might the tone of an email to a parent?


Consider the question that is asked in the examination.

You must distinguish that the audience, purpose and tone might be of the response required.

It is worth planning this on the examination first.

Simply write:

Audience -

Purpose -

Tone -

What is meant by audience?
What is meant by tone?
What is transactional writing?