Presenting Results

Presenting Results

Collecting and Recording Data

  • Conduct experiments in a methodical and systematic way, in order to gather reliable data which can be analysed and interpreted later.
  • Always take accurate measurements, making sure to record the units.
  • Clearly label all observations and results in a tabular format where appropriate.

Processing and Presenting Data

  • Use appropriate calculations to process raw data where necessary, and clearly show your working out.
  • Plot graphs when applicable; ensure they are drawn with accuracy using a suitable scale. The independent variable should be on the x-axis and the dependent variable on the y-axis.
  • Label the axes with the variable name and unit.
  • Choose an appropriate graph type based on the nature of data. Scatter plots are used for continuous variables, while bar graphs are used for categorical variables.

Error Analysis

  • Recognise and analyse potential errors in your experiment. These could be systematic errors, random errors, or personal errors.
  • Calculate the percentage errors of your measurements. This provides a measure of how accurate your results are.
  • Understand how errors could affect your results and conclusions, and potentially how they could be reduced or eliminated in the future.


  • Compare your results with predicted or theoretical values to assess their accuracy.
  • Give a clear, concise summary of what the results show and how they relate to the experiment’s aim.
  • Make sure to analyse and interpret your data. Don’t just present raw data, but draw conclusions from your findings.
  • Highlight any anomalies or outliers in your data and discuss possible reasons for these.


  • Comment on the reliability of your results, using repetitions of experiments or comparing findings to reference values.
  • Suggest improvements to your methodology or ways to extend your investigation, highlighting the justifications for these suggestions.
  • Remember that constructive criticism is part of scientific research and contributes to its progress and development.

Taking care in each of these areas can make the difference between a good experiment and a great one and will aid greatly in building a firm understanding of practical chemical experiments.