Types of Number
Types of Number

Natural numbers: These are the set of positive integers starting from 1 (1,2,3,4,5…). They are often used in counting and ordering.

Whole numbers: This set consists of all natural numbers including 0 (0,1,2,3,4,5…).

Integers: These are all the whole numbers and their opposites (3,2,1,0,1,2,3…). They are used for operations like subtraction and measures below zero.

Rational numbers: These are all numbers that can be expressed as a fraction, where both the numerator and denominator are integers. The denominator cannot be zero. All integers are rational numbers (for instance 5 can be written as 5/1). Decimal representations of rational numbers are either terminating or recurring.

Irrational numbers: These numbers cannot be expressed as a ratio or fraction. They are nonrepeating and nonterminating. An example of an irrational number is the square root of 2 or Pi.

Real numbers: This set includes all the rational and irrational numbers. Basically, all numbers that can be found on the number line are real numbers.

Prime numbers: These are natural numbers greater than 1, which have no positive integer divisors other than 1 and itself. Examples are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 etc.

Composite numbers: These are natural numbers that have at least one positive integer divisor other than 1 and itself. All natural numbers greater than 1 that are not prime are composite. Examples are 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 etc.

Even numbers: These are integers that are exactly divisible by 2. Examples include 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, 6…

Odd numbers: These are integers that are not divisible by 2. Examples are 3, 1, 1, 3, 5, 7…

Powers/Indices/Exponents: These are simple multiplication expressions used symbolically to denote multiplication iterated (repeated), where a number is multiplied by itself a number of times. Examples are 2^3, 10^4, 7^0 etc.
Understanding these different types of numbers allows for a more comprehensive grasp of what numbers mean, and how they interact and relate to each other. Knowing how to categorise numbers is an important foundation in mathematic learning.