# Solids, Liquids and Gases: Specific Heat Capacity

## Solids, Liquids and Gases: Specific Heat Capacity

• Specific Heat Capacity (c) is defined as the energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1°C. It is measured in Joules per kilogramme per degree Celsius (J/kg°C).

• It is a property that varies from one substance to another. For example, metals have a relatively low specific heat capacity, allowing them to heat up and cool down quickly. On the other hand, water has a high specific heat capacity, meaning it takes more energy to change its temperature.

• The equation that relates heat energy transfer, mass, specific heat capacity, and temperature change is: q = mcΔT, where: • q is the heat energy transferred and is measured in Joules (J) • m is the mass of the substance and is measured in kilogrammes (kg) • c is the specific heat capacity • ΔT is the change in temperature and is measured in degrees Celsius (°C)

• For example, if you want to find out how much energy is needed to heat 2kg of water from 20°C to 100°C, you would use the specific heat capacity of water (4200 J/kg°C), the mass of water (2kg), and the temperature change (100°C - 20°C = 80°C) in the equation to find the answer.

• Understanding specific heat capacity is crucial when considering energy transfers in many real-world contexts, from domestic radiator systems to environmental concerns such as global warming.

• In an experiment to measure specific heat capacity, the potential sources of error might include heat loss to the surroundings and inaccurate temperature readings. The use of insulating materials and accurate thermometers can help to mitigate these potential errors.

• Be prepared to analyse and interpret data from such experiments, including the use of appropriate equations to calculate specific heat capacities, and to consider potential sources of experimental error.

• Also, be ready to explain the environmental significance of specific heat capacities. For example, because of its high specific heat capacity, water can absorb a lot of heat from the sun without its temperature rising greatly. This helps to moderate global temperatures.

• Lastly, different states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) have different specific heat capacities. This difference can be attributed to the varying arrangement and movement of particles in each state.