Basic Elements of Geometry

  • Understanding the concept of points. A point is the most basic geometric element and represents a position.
  • An understanding of a line is vital. It is defined as a series of points that continues indefinitely in both directions.
  • Know what a plane is, which is a flat surface extending infinitely in all directions.
  • Familiarising yourself with line segments and rays. A line segment is a portion of a line, bounded by two endpoints. A ray has one endpoint and continues indefinitely in one direction.
  • Endpoints are the points where a line or line segment starts or ends.
  • Knowing the distinction between parallel lines and intersecting lines. Parallel lines are lines in the same plane that will never meet. Intersecting lines are lines that cross at a single point.

Shapes and Solids

  • Understanding circles. A circle is made up of set of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a single point known as the centre.
  • Know what a polygon is, a 2D shape formed by straight lines.
  • Understanding different types of polygons, such as triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, and hexagons.
  • Familiarisation with spheres, cubes, cylinders, and cones.


  • Identify various properties including length, perimeter, area, and volume.
  • Knowing how to calculate these properties for various shapes and solids.

Position and Movement

  • Understanding how to measure angles.
  • Knowing the types of angles: acute, right, obtuse, straight, reflex and complete.
  • Identify and understand rotation, reflexion, translation, and enlargement.
  • Know how to use the distance and midpoint formulas.
  • Interpretation and application of scale factors and scale drawings.

Pythagoras’ Theorem and Trigonometry

  • Familiarity with the Pythagoras’ Theorem and its application in finding lengths in right-angled triangles.
  • Understanding of trigonometric ratios: sine, cosine, and tangent.
  • Application of trigonometric ratios to find lengths and angles in right-angled triangles.
  • Understanding of the concept and application of exact trigonometric ratios.