# Basic Elements of Geometry

• Understanding the concept of points. A point is the most basic geometric element and represents a position.
• An understanding of a line is vital. It is defined as a series of points that continues indefinitely in both directions.
• Know what a plane is, which is a flat surface extending infinitely in all directions.
• Familiarising yourself with line segments and rays. A line segment is a portion of a line, bounded by two endpoints. A ray has one endpoint and continues indefinitely in one direction.
• Endpoints are the points where a line or line segment starts or ends.
• Knowing the distinction between parallel lines and intersecting lines. Parallel lines are lines in the same plane that will never meet. Intersecting lines are lines that cross at a single point.

# Shapes and Solids

• Understanding circles. A circle is made up of set of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a single point known as the centre.
• Know what a polygon is, a 2D shape formed by straight lines.
• Understanding different types of polygons, such as triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, and hexagons.
• Familiarisation with spheres, cubes, cylinders, and cones.

# Properties

• Identify various properties including length, perimeter, area, and volume.
• Knowing how to calculate these properties for various shapes and solids.

# Position and Movement

• Understanding how to measure angles.
• Knowing the types of angles: acute, right, obtuse, straight, reflex and complete.
• Identify and understand rotation, reflexion, translation, and enlargement.
• Know how to use the distance and midpoint formulas.
• Interpretation and application of scale factors and scale drawings.

# Pythagoras’ Theorem and Trigonometry

• Familiarity with the Pythagoras’ Theorem and its application in finding lengths in right-angled triangles.
• Understanding of trigonometric ratios: sine, cosine, and tangent.
• Application of trigonometric ratios to find lengths and angles in right-angled triangles.
• Understanding of the concept and application of exact trigonometric ratios.