What Were the Crusades
The Crusades lasted centuries. From 1095 AD until 1291 AD, European Christians invaded the Middle East on several occasions in an attempt to control the ‘Holy Land’ and keep it from Muslim control. Despite bringing back a vast amount of knowledge __to Europe, thousands of lives were lost. People went on Crusade for many reasons including __power, land, riches, and religion __(went as part of a __pilgrimage, or to rid themselves of any sins).
Who Were the Angevins
The Angevins __(named after the area in France they were originally from - __Anjou), also known as the Plantagenets __(because Duke of Anjou, Geoffrey, the father of King Henry 1st, used to wear a yellow plant in his hat called a Planta Genista). The Angevin and Plantagenet names continued down the line from King Henry II (__1154 AD - 1189 AD) down the line to King Richard III (1483 - 1485 AD).
Henrys Rule of England
Henry II __became King of England in __1153 AD, after a time of uncertainty over rulers in England. Henry II spent a lot of time travelling between __England __and __France __in order to defend his lands (because he was king over lots of land in France, as well as England). He spent so much time crossing the English Channel between the two countries - possibly up to 30 times - that even the King of the other parts of France, Louis VII commented on how much travel he did.
Where Else Did Henry Rule
Henry II ruled a lot of land besides England and became one of the__ most powerful rulers__ in Europe at the time. He had French origins and inherited French territory from both of his parents including the titles Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou, and Count of Maine. He also married a French Duchess, Eleanor of Aquitaine, which gave him more territory stretching into areas of Spain. He also fought his way into controlling other regions, including Brittany and areas of Ireland (he became ‘Overlord of Ireland’ in 1175 AD).
Relations with Europe and Migration
Henry did not have good relations with France. France was not yet a united France as we know it today and Henry was worried he spent too much time in England, which would leave him vulnerable to others trying to take over his territory in France. His biggest rival was another French leader Louis VII.
Significance of Henrys Empire
Henry was seen as the most powerful leader in Europe at the time. Henry grew and reigned over a wide empire. Henry’s Angevin Empire was significant at the time as it was the largest empire an English King had ruled over. It changed the way England was seen, particularly its relations with Ireland.
- What were the Crusades?
- Your answer should include: take over holy land / holy wars
- Where did Henry II rule over?
- Your answer should include: region of france / brittany / normandy / aquitaine / anjou / england / parts of ireland / dublin
- Why was it called the Angevin Empire?
- Your answer should include: anjou / ruled over multiple lands