Hundred Year War

Causes of the War

In 1337 AD, King Edward III of England claimed the French throne and declared war on France. The Hundred Years War broke out for 4 main reasons:

  1. King Edward wanted the__ throne of France__. He felt it was his right, as his mother was the daughter of King Philip IV.
  2. France threatened to take Gascony __territory from England (England made wine in England and the wine tax revenue __from the wine went to the English Crown).
  3. France threatened to take further territory __from England - territory in which England was turning English wool into cloth __to sell abroad and therefore the loss of this territory would make England poorer
  4. Edward was in conflict with Scotland at the time and the French said they would help Scotland against him.

Events of the War

It is debated how long the Hundred Years War lasted - roughly from 1337 AD to 1453 AD - it spanned__ three different English Kings__. Most of the fighting was done on__ French land__, and was split into__ three phases__:

  1. In the first phase, things went well for the English, they gaining land and winning battles.
  2. In the second phase things went better for the French, as they won back some of the land that they had lost.
  3. The final stage was good for the English under King Henry V. The English saw victory against the French, despite the odds, in the Battle of Agincourt 1415 AD. The English conquered Northern France. However, the French did not give up. The French fought back under the leadership of a 17-year old Joan of Arc, who beat the English in many military campaigns, until she was captured and burnt at the stake in 1431 AD.

Short Term Outcomes of the War

The Hundred Years War ended in 1453 AD leaving some short term impacts:

  • The English had lost all of their__ French territory__ except for Calais.

  • The memory of the English victory in the Battle of Agincourt (it was Henry V’s biggest success - his army was outnumbered 3:1, but used new tactics to beat the French and conquer the northern of France).

  • A __Treaty __formed between France and England.

- __Destruction __of areas which had face warfare (some particular areas of France at the time were completely ruined)

  • Damaged the __economy __(war was expensive and had resulted in high taxation)

- __Death __of thousands of men from both sides.

Long Term Outcomes of the War

The Hundred Years War also saw more long term impacts:

- Military impact - the way battles were fought shifted from relying on archers to than horseback fighting

- France became one unified country (rather than a number of regions so the King became more powerful than ever)

Was the War Significant

The War made England and France forge separate identities:

  • France became one __unified __country with its own national identity

  • England stopped getting involved in European relations and became more unified

  • The English stopped using French as part of their language

How long did the Hundred Year War last?
What were the short term outcomes of the war?
Your answer should include: military tactics / cost of war / english identity / unification of france
What were the causes of the war?
Your answer should include: claim / throne / taxes / wine / wool / cloth / manufacture / french / invade / alliance / scotland