Output of a 100% Efficient Transformer Depending upon the Number of Turns in the Coils
Output of a 100% Efficient Transformer Depending upon the Number of Turns in the Coils

Transformers work on the principle of electromagnetic induction. In an ideal 100% efficient transformer, no energy is lost as heat or sound.

The key components of a transformer are two coils of wire (known as the primary and secondary coils) linked by a soft iron core.

The output voltage of a transformer is directly related to the number of turns in its coils. This relationship is governed by the formula Vs/Vp = Ns/Np, where Vs and Vp are the voltages across the secondary and primary coils, and Ns and Np are the number of turns in the secondary and primary coils.

If the secondary coil has more turns than the primary coil, the transformer is called a stepup transformer. A stepup transformer increases voltage from the primary to the secondary coil.

If the primary coil has more turns than the secondary coil, the transformer is called a stepdown transformer. Stepdown transformers reduce voltage from the primary to the secondary coil.

The ratio of the number of turns in the coils determines the exact change in voltage. For example, if the secondary coil has twice as many turns as the primary coil, the output voltage will be twice the input voltage in a 100% efficient transformer.

Despite changes in voltage, the power input to the transformer equals the power output from the transformer, assuming 100% efficiency. This means that if the voltage is stepped up, the current is stepped down, and vice versa. This can be represented by the equation P=IV, where P is power, I is current, and V is voltage.

Remember, though, those are ideal conditions – in reality, no transformer is 100% efficient. There will always be some power loss due to resistance in the windings, hysteresis loss in the core, and other factors.