# Introduction to Basic Mechanical Principles

• Understanding forces:
• Different types of forces include gravity, friction, tension and compression.
• Forces have direction and magnitude.
• Newton’s Laws of Motion explain how forces affect motion.
• Kinematics:
• Describes the motion of objects without considering the forces that cause the motion.
• It involves concepts like speed, velocity, and acceleration.
• Distance-time graphs and speed-time graphs are handy tools in kinematics.

# Simple Mechanics: Machines and Levers

• Levers:
• Understand the provenance and classifications of levers (first, second, third kind).
• Know how levers can alter the force, direction, and distance of a movement.
• Calculated as output force divided by input force.
• Levers, pulleys and gears can increase mechanical advantage.
• Gears:
• Acknowledge how gears transfer and modify rotary motion.
• Understand the relationship between gear size, speed and torque.

# Energy and Work

• Energy conversions and transformations:
• Different forms of energy include kinetic, potential, thermal, electrical, and nuclear.
• Know that energy is always conserved, but it can be converted from one form to another.
• Work done:
• Calculated as force multiplied by distance.
• Work done on an object is equivalent to energy transferred to that object.

# Stress and Strain

• Tension and compression:
• Tension concerns forces that cause an object to lengthen.
• Compression involves forces that result in an object shortening.
• Stress and strain definitions:
• Stress is the internal force per unit area within materials.
• Strain is defined as deformation resulting from stress.
• Hooke’s Law:
• Defines the relationship between stress and strain for solid materials under a tensile load.
• Understand the limit of proportionality, elastic limit, and rupture point of materials.

# Overview of Fluid Mechanics

• Fluid dynamics:
• Explains how fluids (liquids and gases) move.
• Learn about flow rate and the equation of continuity.
• Bernoulli’s equation explains the trade-off between pressure, height and velocity in a flowing fluid.
• Hydraulic and pneumatic systems:
• Understand operating principles, the use of compressible and incompressible fluids, respectively.
• Hydraulic systems are used to transmit force in large-scale machinery.
• Pneumatic systems are often used in tools and transport due to their cleanliness and performance.