# Basic mechanical principles

# Introduction to Basic Mechanical Principles

**Understanding forces**:- Different types of forces include gravity, friction, tension and compression.
- Forces have direction and magnitude.
- Newton’s Laws of Motion explain how forces affect motion.

**Kinematics**:- Describes the motion of objects without considering the forces that cause the motion.
- It involves concepts like speed, velocity, and acceleration.
- Distance-time graphs and speed-time graphs are handy tools in kinematics.

# Simple Mechanics: Machines and Levers

**Levers**:- Understand the provenance and classifications of levers (first, second, third kind).
- Know how levers can alter the force, direction, and distance of a movement.

**Mechanical advantage**:- Calculated as output force divided by input force.
- Levers, pulleys and gears can increase mechanical advantage.

**Gears**:- Acknowledge how gears transfer and modify rotary motion.
- Understand the relationship between gear size, speed and torque.

# Energy and Work

**Energy conversions and transformations**:- Different forms of energy include kinetic, potential, thermal, electrical, and nuclear.
- Know that energy is always conserved, but it can be converted from one form to another.

**Work done**:- Calculated as force multiplied by distance.
- Work done on an object is equivalent to energy transferred to that object.

# Stress and Strain

**Tension and compression**:- Tension concerns forces that cause an object to lengthen.
- Compression involves forces that result in an object shortening.

**Stress and strain definitions**:- Stress is the internal force per unit area within materials.
- Strain is defined as deformation resulting from stress.

**Hooke’s Law**:- Defines the relationship between stress and strain for solid materials under a tensile load.
- Understand the limit of proportionality, elastic limit, and rupture point of materials.

# Overview of Fluid Mechanics

**Fluid dynamics**:- Explains how fluids (liquids and gases) move.
- Learn about flow rate and the equation of continuity.
- Bernoulli’s equation explains the trade-off between pressure, height and velocity in a flowing fluid.

**Hydraulic and pneumatic systems**:- Understand operating principles, the use of compressible and incompressible fluids, respectively.
- Hydraulic systems are used to transmit force in large-scale machinery.
- Pneumatic systems are often used in tools and transport due to their cleanliness and performance.