Nazi rise to power

Nazi rise to power

The Nazi Party Before 1933

  • The National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), better known as the Nazi Party, was founded in 1920, initially attracting a small following.
  • Adolf Hitler became its leader in 1921 and soon became the party’s public face, known for his fiery speeches and charismatic presence.
  • An early significant event was the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923, a failed coup attempt in Munich. Hitler was imprisoned, during which he wrote Mein Kampf outlining his political ideology and future plans.
  • After Hitler’s release, the party changed its strategy to gain power through democratic means, steadily increasing their presence in the Reichstag (German Parliament) from the mid-1920s.

Hitler’s Appointment as Chancellor

  • The economic depression of the 1930s facilitated the rise of the Nazi Party. Discontent with the Weimar Republic’s perceived inability to handle the crisis bolstered support for extremist parties.
  • With political maneuvering and the backing of influential conservatives who believed they could control him, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany in January 1933 by President Paul von Hindenburg.

Consolidation of Power

  • The Reichstag Fire in February 1933, which the Nazis blamed on the Communists, allowed Hitler to convince Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire Decree, suspending many civil liberties.
  • The Enabling Act, passed in March 1933, effectively gave Hitler dictatorial powers, bypassing the Reichstag and making laws without consent from parliament.
  • During the Night of the Long Knives in 1934, Hitler purged his own party of potential rivals. This act solidified his absolute control over the Nazi Party and intimidated other potential adversaries.
  • Following the death of President Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler merged the positions of Chancellor and President, becoming Führer and Chancellor. The German army swore an oath of loyalty directly to Hitler, further cementing his power.

Nazi Propaganda and Indoctrination

  • The control and use of propaganda played a significant role in the Nazi’s consolidation of power. The Propaganda Ministry, under Joseph Goebbels, controlled all forms of communication, shaping public opinion in favour of the Nazis.
  • The Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were instrumental in indoctrinating the young generation with Nazi ideology and loyalty towards Hitler.

Implementation of Nazi Policies and Ideology

  • The Nazis implemented a range of policies targeting their perceived enemies. Many of these measures culminated in the horrors of the Holocaust.
  • Anti-Semitic legislation such as the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 systematically disenfranchised and discriminated against Jews.
  • The Kristallnacht pogrom in November 1938 saw widespread violence against Jews, marking a significant escalation of Nazi anti-Semitic policy.

This should provide a comprehensive overview of Hitler’s rise to power in Nazi Germany from 1919 to 1939. Understanding these historical events is crucial to the understanding of the rise and effects of Nazi rule in Germany.