Balliol and Edward I 1292-1296

Balliol and Edward I 1292-1296

John Balliol’s Appointment (1292)

  • Upon the demise of Margaret, Maid of Norway, John Balliol was appointed as the King of Scotland by Edward I in 1292.
  • Balliol was chosen over Robert Bruce and several other claimants, primarily due to his closer line of succession.
  • Edward I orchestrated this appointment, using it to claim his overlordship over Scotland.

Edward I’s Intervention in Scotland (1292-1295)

  • Edwards I did not hesitate to intervene in Scotland’s internal matters, further highlighting his assumed overlordship.
  • He made demands of military service from Balliol and even judged against him in disputes with his own Scottish subjects.
  • Edward’s interventions led to tension, nurturing the grounds for the upcoming Wars of Independence.

Balliol’s Rebellion (1295)

  • Frustrated by Edward I’s encroachments, Balliol started to reassert his authority.
  • The Scottish nobles formed a council of twelve to advise Balliol, reducing his reliance on Edward I.
  • A significant step indicating Balliol’s moves towards independence was the alliance with France in 1295, known as the ‘Auld Alliance’.

First War of Scottish Independence (1296)

  • Edward I, viewing Balliol’s rebellion as treachery, initiated the First War of Scottish Independence in 1296.
  • Edward I attacked Berwick, leading to a tragic slaughter, then moved to defeat the Scots in the Battle of Dunbar.
  • Following these defeats, Balliol was captured, forced to abdicate, and spent the rest of his life in English custody – a period known as the domination of Scotland by Edward I.

Significance of Balliol and Edward I’s Reign (1292-1296)

  • This period led to a significant increase in anti-English sentiment in Scotland.
  • The events during this period were a prequel to the rise of Scottish figures like William Wallace and Robert the Bruce.
  • The misfortunes under Balliol’s reign were a direct result of Edward I’s assertion of overlordship, framing the context for the Wars of Independence.