Definition and Overview

  • Titration is a technique used in chemistry to measure the concentration of an unknown solution, typically an acid or base.
  • The process involves adding a known reagent, called a titrant, to the unknown solution (analyte) until a reaction is complete.

The Titration Process

  • The endpoint of titration is determined visually or through the use of a pH indicator, such as phenolphthalein, or a pH metre.
  • The titrant is added from a burette into the analyte, which is commonly in a conical flask.
  • For accurate results, only drop by drop addition of the titrant to the analyte near the endpoint should be performed.

Calculations in Titrations

  • Concentration of unknown analyte can be determined by using the stoicheiometry of the reaction and the mole ratio.
  • Careful record of the volume of titrant added until the endpoint is reached allows for calculation of the concentration of the unknown solution.

Types of Titrations

  • Acid-Base Titrations - used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base.
  • Redox Titrations - used for the analysis of oxidising and reducing agents.
  • Complexometric Titrations - widely used in the determination of water hardness.

Precautions in Titrations

  • Always rinse the burette and pipette with the solutions they are meant to deliver.
  • Read the bottom of the meniscus at eye level to avoid parallax error.
  • Near endpoint, the titrant should be added drop by drop for accuracy.

Remember, accuracy and precision are key in all stages of a titration process.