Fitlration, Evaporation, Chromatography and Distillation

Fitlration, Evaporation, Chromatography and Distillation


  • Filtration is a separation method typically used to remove solid particles from a liquid or gas.

  • This process uses a philtre, which traps the solid but allows the liquid or gas to pass through.


  • Evaporation is a separation method usually employed to separate a solvent from a solution.

  • The solution is heated causing the solvent to evaporate, leaving behind the solid solute.


  • Chromatography is a method for separating mixed substances, often colour substances, based on their different affinities for the mobile phase and stationary phase.

  • Each substance moves at a different rate, facilitating their separation.


  • Distillation is a separation method utilised to separate liquids in a mixture with different boiling points.

  • The mixture is heated, the substance with the lower boiling point evaporates first and is then cooled and condensed into a separate container.

Key terms to remember

  • Filter: A tool used to separate solid particles from a liquid or gas in filtration.

  • Evaporation: A method to separate a solvent from a solution by heating the solution and allowing the solvent to turn into gas and evaporate.

  • Chromatography: A method to separate mixtures based on their different moving speeds through a medium.

  • Distillation: A separation process for a mixture of liquids or a liquid from a solution, based on their different boiling points.

Further notes

  • Experiment safety: Always remember safety in the lab when performing separation techniques. Use Bunsen burners and heated solutions carefully and always wear protective gear.