Input-processing Output

Input-processing Output


  • Input devices are used to enter data into a computer system.
  • Examples of input devices include keyboards, mice, scanners, microphones, and sensors.
  • Some input devices directly input into the system, like a keyboard, while others need signal conversion, like a microphone.
  • The quality and accuracy of the input data impacts the subsequent processing and output.
  • An understanding of binary digit representation is essential as all data entered into a computer is ultimately converted into binary.


  • Processing involves manipulating or transforming the input data to produce output.
  • It’s carried out by the Central Processing Unit (CPU), the “brain” of the computer.
  • The speed and power of the CPU affect the efficiency of processing.
  • Processing might involve mathematical operations, comparisons, or organisational tasks, depending on the nature of the input data.
  • Programs guide processing. They are sets of instructions for how to manipulate data.


  • Output is the result of processing. It’s what the computer system presents to the user after processing the input data.
  • Output devices present this processed data. Examples include monitors, printers, and speakers.
  • The form of the output depends on the nature of the output device. A monitor would display images, while a printer produces hard copy and a speaker outputs sound.
  • The user interface (UI) plays a critical role in output as it dictates how the user will interact with the output data.
  • UIs must therefore be intuitive and well-designed to ensure effective communication of the output.

The Input-Processing-Output (IPO) Cycle

  • The Input-Processing-Output (IPO) Model is a fundamental concept in computing that illustrates the interaction between a user and a computer system.
  • The cycle repeats continuously while the computer system is running.
  • Data flows from the user to the computer during input, is manipulated internally during processing, and flows back to the user during output.
  • Understanding IPO is crucial for effective problem-solving in computing. It helps identify what data needs to be entered, how it should be manipulated, and what form the results should take.