# Logical Operators

Understanding Logical Operators

Logical Operators

• Logical Operators are used to create compound conditions and perform boolean logic in programming.
• They are used to evaluate whether certain conditions are true or false, returning a boolean result - either `true` or `false`.
• The primary logical operators are AND, OR, and NOT.

AND Operator

• The AND operator, often denoted as `&&` in many languages, returns `true` if both operands are `true`.
• If one or both operands are `false`, the AND operator will return `false`.

OR Operator

• The OR operator, often denoted as `||`, returns `true` if at least one of the operands is `true`.
• If both operands are `false`, the OR operator will return `false`.

NOT Operator

• The NOT operator, often denoted as `!`, inverts the truth value of its operand. If the operand is `true`, NOT makes it `false`, and vice versa.
• It is a unary operator, meaning it works with only one operand.

Combining Logical Operators

• Logical operators can be combined to form more complex conditions.
• Parentheses can be used to control the order of operation when multiple logical operators exist in the same expression.
• For instance, `! (A && B)` is not the same as `(!A && B)`.

Truth Tables

• To help understand how logical operators work, truth tables can be used. They list the potential true/false combinations of the operands and the result for a particular operator.
• This can help programmers predict the outcome of complex logical expressions.

Short-circuit Evaluation

• This is an important concept with logical operators where the computer stops evaluating an expression as soon as its final value is known.
• For instance, in an `AND` expression, if the first operand is `false`, the expression, regardless of the second operand, can only be `false`.
• Similarly, in an `OR` expression, if the first operand is `true`, the result, regardless of the second operand, can only be `true`.

Key Takeaway

• Understanding how logical operators work is essential to control the flow of the program. They are critical for implementing conditions and decision-making structures in code.