# Logical Operators

**Understanding Logical Operators**

**Logical Operators**

*Logical Operators*are used to create compound conditions and perform boolean logic in programming.- They are used to evaluate whether certain conditions are true or false, returning a boolean result - either
`true`

or`false`

. - The primary logical operators are
*AND*,*OR*, and*NOT*.

**AND Operator**

- The
*AND*operator, often denoted as`&&`

in many languages, returns`true`

if both operands are`true`

. - If one or both operands are
`false`

, the AND operator will return`false`

.

**OR Operator**

- The
*OR*operator, often denoted as`||`

, returns`true`

if at least one of the operands is`true`

. - If both operands are
`false`

, the OR operator will return`false`

.

**NOT Operator**

- The
*NOT*operator, often denoted as`!`

, inverts the truth value of its operand. If the operand is`true`

, NOT makes it`false`

, and vice versa. - It is a unary operator, meaning it works with only one operand.

**Combining Logical Operators**

- Logical operators can be combined to form more complex conditions.
- Parentheses can be used to control the order of operation when multiple logical operators exist in the same expression.
- For instance,
`! (A && B)`

is not the same as`(!A && B)`

.

**Truth Tables**

- To help understand how logical operators work, truth tables can be used. They list the potential true/false combinations of the operands and the result for a particular operator.
- This can help programmers predict the outcome of complex logical expressions.

**Short-circuit Evaluation**

- This is an important concept with logical operators where the computer stops evaluating an expression as soon as its final value is known.
- For instance, in an
`AND`

expression, if the first operand is`false`

, the expression, regardless of the second operand, can only be`false`

. - Similarly, in an
`OR`

expression, if the first operand is`true`

, the result, regardless of the second operand, can only be`true`

.

**Key Takeaway**

- Understanding how
*logical operators*work is essential to control the flow of the program. They are critical for implementing conditions and decision-making structures in code.