Carbohydrates

Monomers & Polymers

Monomers (mono meaning one, think monobrow!)

Small, single units that act as the building blocks to create larger molecules.

Polymers (poly meaning more than two)

____Made up of many monomers, usually thousands, chemically bonded together.

Carbohydrates, figure 1

For monomers to bond together a chemical reaction occurs, this is a condensation reaction. Condensation reactions involve the removal of water. This removal of water from monomers enables a chemical bond to form between the monomers. A hydrolysis reaction is the opposite of this- Hydro (water) lysis (to split). A water molecule is added between two bonded monomers (within a dimer or polymer) to break the chemical bond.

Carbohydrates, figure 2

monomers
Your answer should include: monomers / polymers
Explanation: monomerrssssss

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are key biological molecules that store energy and can provide structural support to plant cells. Carbohydrates can be classified into three groups determined by how many units they are made of, as seen in the flow diagram below:

Carbohydrates, figure 1

Larger carbohydrates, such as sucrose and starch, are made from monosaccharides. The monomers of carbohydrates are known as monosaccharides and glucose, galactose and fructose are three common examples. Monosaccharides are all sugars that are soluble in water. Their functions are either to provide energy or they are building blocks to create other molecules. All carbohydrates contain three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO). The general formula for a monosaccharide is CnH2nOn, where n = the number of carbon atoms it contains.

Glucose

α glucose and β glucose only differ structural on one of their carbon atoms. Which carbon atom is it that the H and OH swap position on?
Your answer should include: 1 / One
Glucose is an abundant and important monosaccharide. What is it’s function?
Your answer should include: energy / storage / structural / support
Name three common monosaccharides:
Your answer should include: glucose / galactose / fructose
Which type of carbohydrates are classed as sugars?
Your answer should include: monosaccharides / disaccharides