Classification of Programming Languages

Classification of Programming Languages

Low Level Languages

  • Low-level languages are closer to machine language and are further from natural human language.
  • They are divided into two types: machine language and assembly language.

Machine Language

  • Machine language is the lowest level of programming language.
  • Programs written in machine language are a series of binary codes, so they are difficult for humans to read and write.
  • Despite being hard to work with, machine language has the advantage of being extremely fast and efficient.

Assembly Language

  • Assembly language is a step above machine language.
  • Instructions are abbreviated into understandable mnemonics, such as ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction etc.
  • An assembler is used to convert these mnemonics into machine language understood by the CPU.

High Level Languages

  • High-level languages are much closer to human language than low level languages.
  • They are easier to learn and use than low level languages, but they require a translator to convert the code into machine language.
  • Examples of high-level languages include C, C++, Java, Python, and JavaScript.

Procedural Languages

  • Procedural languages are high-level languages that use procedures or routines, also known as functions.
  • It follows a top-down approach and works on the principle of block structures.
  • Examples of procedural languages are C, FORTRAN and COBOL.

Object-Oriented Languages

  • Object-oriented languages are based on objects and classes, making them good for representing complex real world situations.
  • They use concepts like encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism to create clean and efficient code.
  • Examples include C++, Java, Python, and Ruby.

Scripting Languages

  • Scripting languages are a type of high-level programming language that is usually interpreted rather than compiled.
  • They are often used for automating tasks and manipulating data.
  • Examples include JavaScript, Python, Perl, and PHP.

Declarative Languages

  • Declarative languages focus on what needs to be achieved rather than how to achieve it.
  • SQL (used for querying databases) and HTML (used for structuring web content) are examples of declarative languages.


  • Understanding the classification of programming languages is crucial for programmers as each type has its own benefits and use-cases.
  • When selecting a programming language for a specific task, the level of the language, its paradigms, and efficiency should be considered.