Natural Numbers
Understanding Natural Numbers

Natural numbers are nonnegative integers starting from 0, they include all whole numbers excluding the negative numbers.

Distinctive property of natural numbers is that they have a distinct successor and every natural number is obtained by repeatedly adding 1 to 0.

Numeration systems, like binary and decimal, utilize natural numbers as their basis.

Computers use natural numbers as represented in the binary system, basis of digital computing.
Representation of Natural Numbers in Binary

Natural numbers are represented in binary system using only 0 and 1.

It is done by dividing the natural number by 2 progressively until we get to 0 and noting the remainder at each stage as bits in the binary equivalent.

The reminder obtained at each stage should be read from bottom to top to get the binary representation of the natural number.
Encoding and Decoding Natural Numbers

Encoding a natural number involves transforming a number from its native numeric system (usually decimal) into another, such as binary.

Decoding is the process of taking a number in binary representation and converting it back to its equivalent natural number in decimal.
Importance of Natural Numbers in Computing

Natural numbers are heavily used in programming, especially in loop counters, array indexing, and others.

They also form the basis of data representation, they are the foundation for creating binary, hexadecimal and octal numbers.

In machinelevel operations, natural numbers are used for addressing and identifying memory locations.

Understanding natural numbers is crucial for algorithm efficiency as counting operations, algorithm complexity, and order of growth are all typically expressed using natural numbers.