Programming Concepts

Basic Programming Concepts

  • Variables: These are the fundamental entities in any program that hold data.Variables can store data of different types, such as integer, float, string, etc.
  • Constants: Constants are similar to variables, but their values can’t be changed once they’re set.
  • Keywords: These are reserved words in a programming language. Each keyword has a specific meaning and purpose.

Control Statements

  • Conditional Statements: These are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. The most commonly used conditional statements are if, else and else if.
  • Looping Statements: These are used to execute a block of code repeatedly. The most common loops are for, while, and do-while.
  • Switch Statements: A switch statement allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values.

Functions and Methods

  • Functions: A function is a group of related statements that perform a specific task. Functions can be pre-defined or user-defined.
  • Methods: Methods are similar to functions but are associated with an object in Object-Oriented Programming (OOP).

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

  • Classes: A class can be considered as a blueprint for creating objects (a particular data structure).
  • Objects: These are instances of classes. An object in OOP has attributes and behaviours, represented by fields and methods, respectively.
  • Inheritance: Inheritance is an important concept in OOP where a new class is created from an existing class.
  • Polymorphism: Polymorphism allows an entity like a variable or a function to have more than one form.
  • Encapsulation: Encapsulation means keeping the data and the functions that manipulate that data in a single unit called class.
  • Abstraction: It is a process of hiding the internal details and displaying only the functionality to the users.

Error Handling and Debugging

  • Syntax Errors: These are errors caused by incorrect syntax. The program will not compile until syntax errors are rectified.
  • Runtime Errors: These are errors that occur while the program is running.
  • Logic Errors: These are errors caused by incorrect logic used in the program. The program may compile and run, but it does not produce correct output.
  • Debugging: This is the process of finding and fixing errors in a program.

Algorithms and Data Structures

  • Algorithms: An algorithm is a sequence of steps to solve a specific problem.
  • Data Structures: These are ways of organising and storing data so they can be accessed and worked with efficiently. They can be simple like arrays and linked lists, or complex like trees and graphs.
  • Big O Notation: This is used to describe the performance or complexity of an algorithm. It measures the worst-case scenario. For example, an algorithm with a Big O of O(n) will increase linearly with the size of the input data.