# Single- and Multi-Dimensional Arrays

## Single- and Multi-Dimensional Arrays

# Single-Dimensional Arrays

- A
**single-dimensional array**is the simplest form of data structure that can store a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. - Also known as
**one-dimensional array**, it represents a list of variables sharing the same datatype. - Each element in this array is associated with a unique
**index**that allows direct access to the element. - In programming, index usually starts with zero, meaning the first element of the array has an index of 0, the second has an index of 1, and so on.
**Traversal**of a single-dimensional array can be accomplished using a looping construct such as a for loop.- A common operation on single-dimensional arrays is
**sorting**, which arranges elements in a certain order (ascending or descending).

# Multi-Dimensional Arrays

- A
**multi-dimensional array**is a data structure that can store data in a matrix form consisting of rows and columns. - A two-dimensional (2D) array is the simplest form of multi-dimensional arrays. It is equivalent to an array of single-dimensional arrays.
- Multi-dimensional arrays can be visualised as an array of arrays, or ‘a table with rows and columns’.
- Just like the single dimensional array, each element in a multi-dimensional array is identified with an
**index**, which is actually a set of indices. Each set corresponds to a row and a column. - A common way to traverse a multi-dimensional array is by using nested loops. The outer loop typically represents rows and the inner loop represents columns.
- Multi-dimensional arrays can be applied in numerous real-world scenarios, such as representation of a chess board (8 x 8), or storing an image (which has width and height, and sometimes layers for colours).
- When dealing with multi-dimensional arrays, it is important to understand the concept of
**row-major order**and**column-major order**, which are methods for storing multi-dimensional arrays in linear storage like memory.