Development of naval warfare
Ancient Naval Warfare (c500-1500)
- Early naval warfare involved close combat on the seas, where soldiers fought hand-to-hand on board their vessels.
- Ships during this period, like the Viking longships, were usually powered by oars and the wind.
- Tactics included the boarding of enemy ships, direct attacks with mobile towers, and the use of ‘Greek Fire’ by Byzantine forces.
Age of Exploration (1500-1750)
- As Europeans began exploring and colonising distant lands during the Age of Discovery, their navies became key tools of empire.
- Developments included the rise of sailing warships, such as the galleon, which was equipped with cannons.
- The primary strategies during this time were the line of battle tactics and firing broadsides at enemy ships.
Age of Sail (1750-1850)
- Battle lines and ship-of-the-line battles predominate. Ships were divided into rates based on their size and firepower.
- The most powerful were the ships of the line, capable of delivering devastating broadsides.
- The use of frigates and privateers for hit-and-run attacks and commerce raiding was common.
Industrial Revolution (1850-1914)
- Advancements in technology led to the introduction of steam-powered ironclad warships.
- The use of torpedoes and submarines introduced a new type of underwater warfare.
- Battleships became the main symbol of naval power, emphasizing the importance of big-gun dreadnoughts.
World War I and II (1914-1945)
- Submarine warfare, as demonstrated by German U-boats, was an essential strategic component in both World Wars, designed to disrupt enemy supply lines.
- Aircraft carriers revolutionised naval warfare, allowing for the projection of force far from a country’s home shores.
- The development and use of naval aviation, radar and sonar greatly changed the scope and nature of naval warfare.
Modern Naval Warfare (1945-Present)
- Modern naval warfare features highly specialised vessels such as missile cruisers, nuclear submarines, and amphibious assault ships.
- Missiles have largely replaced large-calibre guns as the primary offensive weapons on surface ships.
- Naval warfare tactics now often involve a mixture of antisubmarine warfare, air defense, and surface warfare.