# Atomic Structure: Nuclear Radiation and Equations

## Atomic Structure: Nuclear Radiation and Equations

• Every atom is composed of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, circled by electrons.
• Nuclear radiation occurs when an atomic nucleus breaks down and releases energy in the form of particles or waves.

• Alpha radiation is a type of particle radiation composed of alpha particles, each of which contains two protons and two neutrons.
• It is the least penetrating form of nuclear radiation and can be stopped by a sheet of paper or skin.

• Beta radiation is composed of beta particles which are high-speed electrons or positrons.
• It’s more penetrating than alpha radiation and can be stopped by a few millimetres of aluminium.

• Gamma radiation isn’t particle radiation but a form of electromagnetic wave similar to light or X-rays.
• It’s the most penetrating form of radiation, and thick layers of lead or concrete are required to reduce its intensity.

# Nuclear Equations

• You can represent nuclear transformations with nuclear equations.
• In these equations, the total mass number and atomic number are always conserved. Remember that the total of the numbers on one side of the equation must equal the totals on the other side.

• When an atom undergoes radioactive decay, its nucleus emits radiation and transforms into another atom.
• For example, a uranium-238 atom can undergo alpha decay and turn into a thorium-234 atom.

# Balancing Nuclear Equations

• When balancing a nuclear equation, ensure that the total atomic number (protons) and mass number (protons + neutrons) are similar on both sides of the equation.
• Example: U-238 -> Th-234 + alpha; here, the atomic number on the left is 92 (uranium’s atomic number) and on the right it’s 90 (thorium’s atomic number) + 2 (alpha’s atomic number), balancing the atomic numbers. Similar logic applies to the mass numbers.

# Key Points

• Nuclear radiation involves three types: alpha, beta, and gamma with different levels of penetrating power and characteristics.
• Writing and balancing nuclear equations require an understanding of mass and atomic numbers along with decay processes.
• Understanding nuclear radiation is important to appreciate the impact of nuclear technologies and the natural, life-affecting process of radioactive decay.