# Understanding Types of Waves

• A wave is a method of transferring energy and information from one place to another without a physical movement of matter.
• There are two main types of waves: transverse waves and longitudinal waves.

# Transverse Waves

• Transverse waves move the medium in a direction perpendicular (at a right angle) to the direction of the wave.
• The peak of a transverse wave is the highest point, and the trough is the lowest point.
• The amplitude in a transverse wave is the distance from the rest position to the peak or the trough.
• The wavelength is the distance between two corresponding points of a wave, such as from peak to peak or trough to trough.
• Examples of transverse waves include light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and water waves.

# Longitudinal Waves

• Longitudinal waves move the medium in the same direction as the wave. They cause the particles in the medium to move back and forth along the direction of the wave.
• The parts where particles are squeezed together are called compressions, while the areas where particles are spread out are called rarefactions. The wavelength in a longitudinal wave is the distance between two consecutive compressions or two consecutive rarefactions.
• Examples of longitudinal waves include sound waves and primary waves (P-waves) in earthquakes.

# Comparison of Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

• Both transverse and longitudinal waves transfer energy, but the movement of particles differs.
• Transverse waves cause particles to move up and down, while longitudinal waves cause particles to move back and forth.
• Examples of both waves can be found in nature and applications like geology (earthquake waves), physics, engineering, and more.

# Properties of Waves

• Both types of waves have properties such as amplitude, frequency, and wavelength which determines how they behave.
• The frequency of a wave is the number of waves created per second. It is measured in hertz (Hz).
• The speed of a wave is determined by the medium it is in and its frequency and wavelength.
• The equation that links wave speed, frequency, and wavelength is: speed = frequency × wavelength.