Ionic Bonding

Ionic Bonding

Basic Information

  • Ionic bonding involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another, forming ions. These charged particles are then attracted to each other due to opposite charges, forming an ionic compound.
  • Ionic bonding typically involves a metal and a non-metal. The metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation and the non-metal gains electrons to become a negatively charged anion.
  • The resulting ionic compound is generally a solid at room temperature and forms a crystal lattice, a regularly repeating pattern in all three dimensions.

Properties of Ionic Compounds

  • High melting and boiling points: Due to the strong attractions between the positive and negative ions, ionic compounds need a lot of energy to break them apart, resulting in high melting and boiling points.
  • Conductivity: When dissolved in water or melted, ionic compounds will conduct electricity. This is because the ions are free to move and carry electrical charge.
  • Hard but brittle: Ionic compounds are hard due to the strong ionic bonds present in the lattice structure. However, they are brittle and will break along clear lines when force is applied.

Remember the Steps of Ionic Bonding

  1. The metal atom loses electrons to become a positively charged cation.
  2. The non-metal atom gains those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.
  3. The cation and anion attract each other to form an ionic compound.

Key Points on Drawing Dot-and-cross Diagrams

  • Dot-and-cross diagrams show the arrangement of the outer shell electrons only.
  • Electrons from one atom are represented by crosses and from the other by dots.
  • Loss or gain of electrons is clearly indicated in the diagrams.

Keywords to focus on

  • Ionic Bonding: The complete transfer of valence electron(s) from a metal to a non-metal.
  • Cation: A positively charged ion.
  • Anion: A negatively charged ion.
  • Crystal Lattice: A structural arrangement of ions in a repeating pattern.

Understanding ionic bonding is fundamental to comprehending the world around us because it primarily explains how many substances around us, especially salts, are formed. It also explains several physical properties of ionic compounds.