Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
Monoclonal antibodies__ _are identical copies of a specific type of antibody_.
Antibodies are extremely important as they are a type of protein that is produced by lymphocytes.
Pathogens have antigens on them - this makes them unique. When a pathogen enters the body and causes an infection, the lymphocyte recognises the unique antigen on the pathogen and start attacking them by producing antibodies. This is because the body has noticed that the antigen is foreign and should not be in the body.
- In order to produce monoclonal antibodies, a mouse is injected with an antigen.
- The mouse will then automatically produce lymphocytes, which will then produce antibodies that will attack that specific antigen that has been injected onto the mouse.
- Lymphocytes are unable to divide once it starts to create antibodies to tackle the antigens.
- Then a small operation would take place as spleen cells are removed.
- Spleen cells normally produce lymphocytes.
- Then the spleen cells are fused with cancerous human white blood cells so that hybridoma cells are formed.
- Cancerous cells are then able to divide indefinitely.
- The hybridoma cells then divide and produce millions of monoclonal antibodies that are specific to the original antigen.
Uses of Monoclonal Antibodies
Pregnancy test sticks have been designed so that monoclonal antibodies on the bottom of the stick will bind with a specific hormone called HCG.
Only women that are pregnant will produce HCG, and it can be found in their urine. If a woman is pregnant, HCG will be present in her urine and will bind to the monoclonal antibodies that are found on the bottom of the pregnancy test stick. Depending on the brand, the stick will then change colour or show a pattern to suggest that the women is pregnant.
Antigens can be found on the surface of cancerous cells. Monoclonal antibodies will bind to these antigens when they are injected in the body. They will clump the cancer cells together. Antibodies are made radioactive so that cancerous cells can be detected in the body quite easily through machines such as a PET scanner.
Monoclonal antibodies are attached to drugs that tackle cancer, and they are carried towards the tumour. This allows the drug to target the cancer cell, therefore less chemotherapy drugs can be used. Monoclonal antibodies also encourage your immune system to attack the cancer cells directly.
Monoclonal antibodies can also bind to antigens that are found on blood clots. If monoclonal antibodies are attached to dyes that glow under UV light, then special cameras can be used to detect them. This allows doctors to locate the blood clot - which would then speed up the speed in which a patient is treated.
Interaction of Factors
Many non-communicable human diseases are caused by the__ interaction of a number of factors__, including cardiovascular diseases, many forms of cancer, some lung and liver diseases and diseases influenced by nutrition.
The presence of one disease in an individual can lead to a higher chance of developing another type of disease. If someone has a weak immune system, they’re more likely to be affected by infectious diseases. When the immune system is tackling foreign bodies, it may trigger allergic reactions that can lead to skin rashes and asthma.
Life Style Factors
Lifestyle__ __can be a risk factor as it has an effect on non-communicable diseases at local, national and global levels.
__Exercise and diet __has an immense effect on obesity as people who do not exercise or have a healthy diet will be more likely to become obese. They have a higher chance of having type 2 diabetes. Their BMI can be calculated and monitored through this equation:
Drinking alcohol __has a negative effect on the body, as individuals who drink are more likely to have liver diseases. __Smoking also has a negative effect on the body, as individuals who smoke are more likely to have cardiovascular diseases.
The government may have to change their tax and regulations to ensure that they are limiting the amount negative substances that are circulating in their country. This will affect their trades with other countries too as the demand would be affected when the prices are changed due to tax implementation.
Treating Cardiovascular Disease
Life-long medication__ __can be extremely useful as it may alleviate the pain in the individual, even if it doesn’t get rid of the disease. However, they may have side effects which may be a risk factor towards another disease.
Surgical procedures are also performed, as it would increase the life expectancy if it is successful. However it is an extremely risky operation as the heart is one of the most important organs in the body, and it contains a lot of thick blood vessels that are vital for survival.
Individuals can make__ __lifestyle changes which are very simple yet effective. They can cut down on fatty foods, reduce salt intake, stop smoking and drinking, relax, exercise, monitor BMI and blood pressure. However not every patient will follow the simple advice to change their lifestyle as humans are habitual creatures.
- What are antibodies produced by?
- What are monoclonal antibodies?
- Your answer should include: Identical / Copies / Specific / Type / Antibody