# Spreadsheets: Using Functions, Formulae and Features

## Spreadsheets: Using Functions, Formulae and Features

• Spreadsheets like Excel or Google Sheets are digital tools used to organise, manipulate and analyse data.
• Spreadheets operate on a grid system, made up of rows (identified by numbers) and columns (identified by letters).
• Each box in the grid is called a cell, and can be identified by its unique coordinate - the column letter and the row number (e.g A1).

• SUM Function: Calculates the sum of a range of cells. (e.g. `=SUM(A1:A10)` will add all the numbers in cells from A1 to A10)
• AVERAGE function: Calculates the average of a range of cells. (e.g., `=AVERAGE(B2:B5)`)
• COUNT function: Counts the number of cells in a range that contain numbers. (e.g., `=COUNT(C1:C20)`)

## Creating Formulas

• Formulas are expressions which perform calculations with the data in your spreadsheet.
• They always begin with an equal sign (=).
• Operands could be numbers, cell references or text.
• Operators: Excel uses standard operators for calculations such as ‘+’ for addition, ‘-‘ for subtraction, ‘*’ for multiplication, and ‘/’ for division.
• Cell reference: Instead of adding specific numbers in an equation, you can refer to the cells in which the numbers are contain (e.g. `=A1+B2`).

• IF function: Allows you to make logical comparison between a value and what you expect (e.g., `=IF(D1>50, "Pass", "Fail")`).
• VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP function: Used for looking up specific information in your spreadsheet (e.g., `=VLOOKUP(A2, B2:E7, 3, False)`).
• Pivot tables: A tool that allows you to reorganise and consolidate large data sets in a way that’s more manageable and useful.

• Spreadsheets identify errors in formulae and functions with a start of the cell reference (e.g., `#NAME?`, `#VALUE!`, `#DIV/0!`).