# Planes and Axes of Movement

## Planes and Axes of Movement

• Planes and Axes refer to an important concept in Kinematics (study of movement) within Physical Education. Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body, while axes are imaginary lines about which the body or a body part rotates.

• There are three planes of movement: the sagittal plane, the frontal plane, and the transverse plane.

• The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves. Movements along this plane are generally backward and forward, like running or doing a chest pass in netball.

• The frontal plane (also known as the coronal plane) cuts the body into front and back halves. Sideways movements, like a side lunge or star jump, happen along this plane.

• The transverse plane divides the body into upper and lower halves. Rotational movements occur along this plane, such as twisting the torso or doing a pirouette.

• Similarly, there are three axes of rotation: the longitudinal axis, the sagittal axis, and the transverse axis.

• The longitudinal axis runs top to bottom, and rotation around this axis happens in the transverse plane. An example is a pirouette in ballet.

• The sagittal axis runs front to back, and rotation around this axis happens in the frontal plane. An example is a cartwheel.

• The transverse axis runs left to right, and rotation around this axis happens in the sagittal plane. An example would be a forward roll or a backflip.

• Each plane and axis are used in different sports activities to achieve different types of movements. Understanding how these planes and axes allow for movement can help improve performance and technique in various physical activities.

• Both planes and axes are crucial in understanding a body’s movement and motion, which can aid in preventing injuries during physical sports and activities. By understanding these concepts, improper movements that may lead to injuries can be identified and avoided.

• Remember to connect these concepts to specific physical activities during revision to guarantee thorough understanding and make memorization easier.

• Refer to the anatomical references (front, back, left, right, top, bottom) in relation to the body’s position to correctly understand the planes and axes of movement.