Short and Long Term Effects of Exercise

Short and Long Term Effects of Exercise

Short-Term Effects of Exercise:

  • Immediate increase in heart rate and blood pressure: This is to ensure that the muscles receive an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to maintain activity.
  • Heavy breathing: Exercise necessitates an increased intake of oxygen. Your body responds by making you breathe heavily or pant.
  • Increased sweat production: The body cools down through sweat. Higher intensity activities will result in more sweat.
  • Raised body temperature: Exercise produces heat in the body, elevating your overall body temperature.
  • Lactic acid build-up: When the body cannot get sufficient oxygen to the muscles, it begins breaking down glucose without oxygen, resulting in lactic acid build-up which can cause muscle fatigue.

Long-Term Effects of Exercise:

  • Enhanced cardiovascular fitness: Regular exercise over a long period improves the function of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system.
  • Increased muscle strength and endurance: Through consistent exercise, muscles become stronger and can endure more prolonged strain.
  • Improved flexibility and joint health: Persistent physical activity can improve your overall flexibility and keep your joints healthy.
  • Lower body fat levels: Exercise can help burn off excess fat, resulting in a leaner physique.
  • Improved bone density: Weight-bearing activities like running or resistance training can increase bone density, reducing the risk of osteoporosis.
  • Enhanced immune response: Frequent exercise can boost your immune system, making you less prone to common illnesses.
  • Positive impact on mental health: Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the likelihood of conditions like depression and anxiety.
  • Better sleep: Routine exercise can help regulate your sleep patterns, leading to better quality sleep.
  • Increased lifespan: With improved overall health, the risk decreases for certain diseases and conditions, potentially leading to a longer life span.

Remember to review consequences of not exercising too, which include an increased risk of heart disease, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, mental health problems and some cancers. Also, consider the relationship between diet and exercise in maintaining a healthy body.

It’s helpful to think about how the effects listed above may apply in specific sporting contexts - for example, the impact of long-distance running versus weightlifting on the body.