Anarchism: Different Types

Anarchism: Different Types


  • Anarcho-communism, also known as libertarian communism, sees the abolishment of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) as the goal.
  • Key figures within this branch include Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman. Especially Kropotkin’s work The Conquest of Bread has been influential, outlining a vision of a society in which voluntary associations handle public functions and wealth is distributed according to individual need.


  • Anarcho-syndicalism focuses on direct industrial action, specifically the use of the general strike, and views revolution as a necessary prelude to the formation of an anarchist society. It promotes workers’ self-management and virtuous, meaningful labour.
  • The Spanish Civil War was significant to the development of anarcho-syndicalism, with the anarcho-syndicalist union CNT playing a pivotal role.


  • Anarcho-capitalism envisions a society where the free market operates without state interference and all services, including law enforcement and courts, are privatised.
  • Key proponents like Murray Rothbard argue that such a system would optimally promote individual liberty and economic prosperity.

Green Anarchism

  • Green anarchism emphasises the ecological principles of interconnectedness and sustainability, often combining this with an anti-capitalist critique.
  • Subsets of green anarchism include anarcho-primitivism, which advocates for the return to non-“civilised” ways of life, and eco-anarchism, interested in environmental activism, often with non-violent means.


  • Anarcha-feminism intersects anarchist principles of non-hierarchial organisation and anti-authoritarianism with feminist critique. It argues that patriarchy and class oppression are intimately interconnected and must be fought in tandem.
  • Prominent anarcha-feminist Emma Goldman was known for her writing and speeches on women’s rights including suffrage and birth control.

Post-Left Anarchism

  • Post-left anarchism is critical of traditional left-wing politics, instead emphasising individual autonomy and the critique of societal structures beyond only the state and capitalism.
  • This type of anarchism has been influenced by movements such as situationism and individualist anarchism, rejecting formal organizations in favour of small affinity groups.


  • Platformism advocates for tight organisational discipline among anarchists, mimicking the structures of political parties as a tactic to influence broader societal change.
  • The Organisational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists is a key text which outlined the principles of platformism, emphasising the need for collective organisation and discipline.