Nationalism: Tensions

Nationalism: Tensions

Nation States Vs Multi-National States

  • Nation states are territories in which the population shares a common identity (national identity) and governance is in the hands of that nation.
  • Multi-national states incorporate people from different nations within their borders, which can often spark tension as minorities may feel overlooked or oppressed by the dominant nation.
  • Tensions can rise if inequitable treatment or unjust policies are enacted against specific nations, often leading to secessionist movements.

Ethno-nationalism Vs Civic Nationalism

  • Ethno-nationalism defines nationhood in terms of ethnicity, emphasising a shared heritage, which includes shared culture, language, and belief in a common ancestry.
  • Civic nationalism, on the other hand, defines nationhood in terms of citizenship within the state. In this idea, a nation is defined by its shared ownership of political institutions.
  • Tensions may arise if there is an imbalance in favor of ethno-nationalism which can lead to exclusion of minority groups and non-ethnic citizens.

Expansionist Nationalism Vs Anti-colonial Nationalism

  • Expansionist nationalism, also known as integral or unabashed nationalism, is a radical form of nationalism that incorporates chauvinism and the belief in the superiority or dominance of a nation.
  • Anti-colonial nationalism rises against imposition by foreign powers or colonisers and seeks to regain independence.
  • The tension between these forms is often a tension between dominance over others and the fight for freedom and self-determination.

Liberal Nationalism Vs Conservative Nationalism

  • Liberal nationalism is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in a non-xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.
  • Conservative nationalism is a variant of nationalism that stresses the value of traditional institutions, and practices conservatism on both cultural and national issues.
  • The tension between these two forms usually centres around issues of inclusivity, role of state and tradition.

Nationalism Vs Internationalism

  • Nationalism places the emphasis on the interests of a nation or a group of nations. It tends to foster patriotism and feelings of loyalty towards one’s own nation.
  • Internationalism seeks greater economic and political cooperation across nations for common goals, often valuing global unity and cooperation above national boundaries.
  • Tensions arise between internationalist ideals (global cooperation, shared goals, interdependence) and nationalist ideals (self-sufficiency, independence, national interest).