Ecologism: Different Types

Ecologism: Different Types

Environmental Pragmatism

  • Environmental Pragmatism rejects inherent value in nature, focusing instead on practical solutions to environmental issues, seeing conservation as a means to ensure resources for future human generations.

  • Classical pragmatists like John Dewey and William James influence this school of thought, stressing focus on concrete problems over abstract principles.

  • This approach emphasises cooperative problem-solving and democratic decision making, promoting interdisciplinary collaboration to tackle environmental challenges.


  • Ecofeminism discerns intrinsic links between the domination of women and nature, positing that overcoming both lies in recognising, valuing, and responding to interdependence and diversity.

  • It draws parallels between the historical subjugation of nature and women, criticising patriarchal logic that objectifies and exploits the ‘other’.

  • Ecofeminism underlines the need to re-evaluate essential capacities often disqualified as gender ‘weakness’, such as emotionality, nurturing, and cooperation, as essential ecological virtues.


  • Bioregionalism advocates for the reorganisation of society along ecological lines, stressing the importance of local knowledge and the unique characteristics of a geographic region in determining how to live sustainably.

  • It posits that human settlements should be self-sustaining, relying on local resources, instead of on global, easily disrupted supply chains.

  • Bioregionalism promotes respect and care for all life forms and recognises the importance of community involvement and awareness in maintaining local ecosystems.

Green Liberalism

  • Green Liberalism accommodates ecological concerns within the framework of liberalism - an ideology historically preoccupied with individual freedom and capitalism.

  • It proposes market-based means of addressing environmental issues, such as carbon pricing, suggesting that economic incentives can encourage businesses to adopt sustainable practices.

  • Green Liberals are typically supportive of incremental change and advocate for the use of technology and science to address environmental crises.


  • Ecosocialism marries the principles of ecology and socialism, critiquing the capitalist system for promoting relentless consumption and short-term profit at the expense of the environment.

  • Ecosocialists champion social ownership of production, as only through release from the constant drive for growth, they maintain, we can promote sustainability.

  • It underscores social and ecological justice, emphasising that environmental costs often disproportionately affect the more impoverished and marginalised societies due to unequal power dynamics.