• In Hindu belief, the universe is cyclical, with periods of creation, existence, and dissolution. This is also known as the cosmic cycle or the cycle of “Samsara”.

  • Chronicles and scriptures narrate the creation of the universe as the work of Brahman who is considered as the divine Ultimate Reality.

  • Descriptions of the universe are often depicted as an infinite egg, referred to as ‘Brahmanda’. The cosmos exists within the egg and was forged by Brahman.

  • There is a belief in multiverses, or innumerable universes, each with its own cycle of growth, sustainment, and destruction.

  • Hindu cosmology proclaims that the world is made up of three realms: the physical, celestial, and divine. These represent the earth (Bhur), the sky (Bhuva), and the heavens (Svah).

  • Many Hindus interpret the universe to be Maya, or an illusion. This concept is rooted in the belief that true knowledge lies in realising Brahman.

  • The theory of Avatar leads to the concept of God’s incarnation onto the Earth to sustain humanity and moral order.

  • The knowledge of cosmology is believed to arouse a consciousness about the temporal world and guide towards attaining Moksha, liberation from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.

  • Hindu cosmology is marked by emphasis on duties (Dharma) towards creation, forming the basis of the moral and ethical conduct prescribed in Hindu scriptures.

  • The concept of ‘Karma’ revolves around the belief of cause and effect. It states that every action, thought, or deed has a consequence which could be in this life or in future lifetimes.

  • The ultimate aim as per Hindu cosmology is Moksha, or liberation from the cycle of Samsara, which is achieved through realisation of one’s oneness with Brahman. This marks the end of individual existence and one’s reunion with the divine Ultimate Reality.