Reactions of Non-Carbonyl Compounds

Reactions of Non-Carbonyl Compounds

Non-carbonyl compounds include hydrocarbons and functional group compounds that do not include a carbonyl group. Both substitution reactions and addition reactions apply to these types of compounds.

Substitution Reactions

  • Substitution reactions involve the exchange of one group (atom or group of atoms) for another in a molecule.
  • Hydrocarbons, such as alkanes, primarily undergo substitution reactions.
  • An example is the halogenation of methane, where chlorine substitutes for a hydrogen atom to form chloromethane and hydrogen chloride.
  • UV light is required to initiate the reaction, as it breaks the chlorine molecules into highly reactive atoms.

Addition Reactions

  • Unlike substitution reactions, addition reactions involve the addition of atoms or groups to a molecule without the removal of any atom.
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as alkenes and alkynes, undergo addition reactions.
  • An example would be the hydration of ethene to form ethanol. In this reaction, H2O adds across the double bond of ethene in the presence of a acid catalyst to form ethanol.

Elimination Reactions

  • Elimination reactions involve the removal of two substituents from a molecule to form a double bond.
  • An example would be the dehydration of alcohols in which a molecule of water is eliminated to form an alkene. E.g., ethane can be dehydrated to form ethene and water in the presence of an acid catalyst.

Reactions with Functional Groups

  • Non-carbonyl compounds with functional groups like alcohols, amines, and ethers show characteristic reactions specific to their functional group.
  • Alcohols undergo reactions such as esterification (with carboxylic acids to produce esters) and dehydration reactions (elimination of a molecule of water to form alkenes).
  • Amines participate in condensation reactions to form amides.

Remember, understanding the types and mechanisms of reactions, as well as the reagents and conditions required, is critical in predicting the outcomes of reactions involving non-carbonyl compounds.