Structures, Reactions and Properties of Commercially Important Organic Compounds

Structures, Reactions and Properties of Commercially Important Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds and their Commercial Relevance

Structure of Organic Compounds

  • Organic compounds are primarily based on carbon atoms.
  • Carbon atoms can create single, double or triple bonds with each other, leading to a wide variety of organic compounds.
  • The variation in compound structures results in different functional groups such as alcohol, ketone, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, ester, and ethers.
  • The three-dimensional structure of organic compounds and their specific arrangements are crucial for their properties and function.

Properties of Organic Compounds

  • Organic compounds often have a high carbon and hydrogen content which relates to their combustibility and usage as fuels.
  • The presence of different functional groups and their arrangements significantly affect the chemical properties.
  • The intermolecular forces present among organic compounds affect their physical properties such as boiling point, melting point, viscosity, and solubility.

Reactions of Organic Compounds

  • The type of reaction undergone by an organic compound largely depends on its structural features.
  • Addition reactions often occur with unsaturated compounds having double or triple bonds.
  • Substitution reactions often occur when a reactive species replaces another atom or group in the compound.
  • Esterification is a specific type of reaction resulting in the production of esters.

Commercial Importance

  • Organic compounds have a wide range of uses in areas like medicine, agriculture, and industry.
  • Simple hydrocarbons like methane and ethane are key components in natural gas and are used for heating and cooking.
  • Organic compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acids are widely used in making perfumes and flavours.
  • A number of organic compounds, particularly those with benzene rings, find critical applications in the pharmaceutical industry.
  • Polymers, which are long-chain organic compounds, have transformed the materials industry, providing plastics, rubber, fibres and resins.