# Transverse Waves

## Basic Concepts

• Transverse waves move perpendicularly to the direction of energy transfer in a medium.
• Examples include light waves and waves on the surface of water.
• Key characteristics of transverse waves are their peak (crest), trough (lowest point), and wavelength (distance between two adjacent peaks or troughs).

## Properties of Transverse Waves

• Transverse waves can be polarised, meaning they can vibrate in one plane only.
• The amplitude is the maximum displacement of the wave from its equilibrium (rest) position.
• The frequency is the number of oscillations per unit time.

## Demonstrating Transverse Waves

• To convey how transverse waves work, imagine shaking one end of a long slinky or rope up and down. The waves generated move at right angles to the direction of the energy transfer.

# Longitudinal Waves

## Basic Concepts

• Longitudinal waves move parallel to the direction of energy transfer in a medium.
• Examples include sound waves and seismic P-waves.
• Longitudinal waves consist of compressions (areas where the waves are close together) and rarefactions (areas where the waves are spread out).

## Properties of Longitudinal Waves

• Longitudinal waves cannot be polarised.
• The wavelength is the distance from one compression to the next (or from one rarefaction to the next).

## Demonstrating Longitudinal Waves

• To illustrate, visualise pushing and pulling one end of a slinky or spring. The waves generated move in the same direction as the energy transferred, leading to regions of compression and rarefaction.

Gaining a clear understanding of transverse and longitudinal waves, their properties, and how they are formed will offer valuable insight into the nature of wave behaviour and the principles of physics. Familiarising yourself with these points helps establish a firm base of knowledge in physics.