Structure and Function of Reproductive Anatomy

Structure and Function of Reproductive Anatomy

The Male Reproductive System


  • Located in the scrotum which keeps them cooler than body temperature, essential for sperm production.
  • Produces sperm and the hormone testosterone.

Sperm Duct (Vas Deferens)

  • A tube that carries sperm from the testes to the urethra.

Prostate Gland

  • Adds fluid to the sperm to make semen.
  • This fluid nourishes the sperm and helps them to swim.


  • The tube that carries semen and urine out of the body.


  • Contains erectile tissue which fills with blood causing an erection.
  • During sexual intercourse, semen is ejaculated via the urethra.

The Female Reproductive System


  • Produce ova (eggs) and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Fallopian Tubes (Oviducts)

  • Carry the egg from the ovaries to the uterus.
  • Fertilisation typically occurs here when a sperm meets the released egg.

Uterus (Womb)

  • The site where the fertilised egg develops into a foetus.
  • Lined with a thick layer of tissue (the endometrium) which provides the fertilised egg with nutrients.


  • The neck of the uterus, it produces mucus which changes in consistency during the menstrual cycle.
  • During labour, it dilates to allow the passage of the baby.


  • The canal leading from the cervix to the outside of the woman’s body.
  • It also serves as the birth canal.

Menstrual Cycle

  • The regular cycle of changes in the female reproductive system.
  • Involves the maturing and release of an egg (ovulation), and preparation of the uterus for implantation.
  • If no fertilisation occurs, the endometrium sheds (the menstrual period) and the cycle restarts.

Sexual Reproduction and Fertilisation

  • In humans, sexual reproduction starts when a sperm fertilises an egg during sexual intercourse.
  • The fertilised egg, now called a zygote, travels down the Fallopian tube and implants in the prepared uterus to develop into a baby.