Structures, Reactions, Uses and Properties of Non-Carbonyl Compounds: Halogenalkanes, Alcohols, Amines

Structures, Reactions, Uses and Properties of Non-Carbonyl Compounds: Halogenalkanes, Alcohols, Amines


  • Belong to a class of organic compounds where a halogen (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, or Iodine) is attached to a carbon atom in an alkane.
  • Their general formula is RX, where R is the alkyl group and X is the halogen.
  • Halogenalkanes can be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary.
  • They can undergo substitution reactions, where the halogen atom is replaced by a different group. The type of reaction varies depending on the type of halogenalkanes (primary, secondary or tertiary).
  • They are used in various industries including synthesis of plastics, as solvents for dry cleaning, and in fire extinguishers.


  • Organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a carbon atom.
  • The general formula is R-OH where R is the rest of the molecule.
  • They can be primary, secondary or tertiary, depending on the carbon to which the OH group is attached.
  • Alcohols undergo reactions such as combustion, oxidation and substitution.
  • Used widely in the manufacture of medications, perfumes, and various consumer goods. They are also key components in alcoholic beverages.


  • Organic compounds where one or more hydrogen atoms in ammonia (NH3) are replaced by an organic substituent.
  • The general formula is R-NH_2, R_2NH or R_3N depending on the number of carbons attached to nitrogen.
  • They can be primary, secondary or tertiary, according to the number of hydrogen atoms replaced.
  • Amines react with acids to form salts and can also undergo substitution reactions.
  • Used in the creation of dyes, pharmaceuticals and polymers.


  • Halogenalkanes are dense, non-polar molecules which can dissolve non-polar substances. They have higher boiling points due to strong forces of attraction (Van der Waals) between the molecules.
  • Alcohols are relatively high boiling point substances due to their ability to form hydrogen bonds. They are miscible with water in low molecular mass cases.
  • Amines have a distinct fishy smell and are usually gases at room temperature. Lower molecular amine molecules are soluble in water as they can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

This knowledge of structures, reactions, uses and properties of non-carbonyl compounds: halogenalkanes, alcohols, amines is essential in understanding the different ways these compounds can be used in industry and in preparing for an exam on Applications of Organic Chemistry.