Testing Methods and Techniques

Testing Methods and Techniques

Identification and Authentication of Samples

  • Spectrophotometry: Which measures how much a chemical substance absorbs light by measuring the intensity of light as a beam of light passes through sample solution.
  • Chromatography can be used to separate mixtures and identify components. It can be either liquid or ion exchange chromatography. Liquid chromatography usually operates with columns, which can be selective and efficient in separation.
  • Titrations: By using a standard solution (with known concentration), we can determine the concentration of an unknown solution.

Physical and Chemical Tests

  • The pH test is an essential test in labs. Laboratories measure pH using pH metres or indicator paper.
  • Flame tests can be used to check for certain elements in a compound.
  • A form of chemical test is precipitation reaction, where the reaction of two chemicals forms a solid.

Use of Microscopes

  • Light microscopy: These microscopes use visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small objects.
  • Electron microscopy: Provides a high-resolution image and is based on magnetic lenses and electron beam.
  • Scanning probe microscopy: This type of microscope provides a 3D surface profile.

Understanding Test Results

  • Laboratories will usually provide a reference range, which are used to interpret the results. Results falling within the reference range are considered normal.
  • Qualitative results provide a simple yes or no for a sample.
  • Quantitative tests provide a specific measurement.
  • If the result is outside the reference range, this may suggest that further testing is needed.