Industrial Applications

Industrial Applications of Cryogenics

  • Cryogenics plays a crucial role in space exploration. Liquid hydrogen and oxygen serve as rocket fuels in vast quantities due to their high energy content.
  • In medicine, cryogenic freezing is used in different procedures such as cryosurgery and cryopreservation. Cryosurgery utilise extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissues, whereas cryopreservation is used to preserve tissues, cells, or whole organs for future use.
  • Superconducting magnets used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners require cryogenic temperatures to function. These high magnetic field devices are cooled using liquid helium.
  • In the energy sector, cryogenic temperatures are used to liquefy natural gas in order to transport it safely and efficiently.
  • Food Processing and Preservation are other significant applications, wherein quick freezing of the food items enhances their shelf life and better retains the food’s nutritional value.
  • Cryogenic freezing is utilised in computer technology, where the speed and efficiency of superconductors can be greatly increased.

Industrial Applications of Vacuum Technology

  • Semiconductor manufacturing heavily relies on vacuum technology for processes like sputtering and chemical vapour deposition (CVD).
  • In material science, ultra-high vacuum conditions are required for surface science studies, coatings and deposition of thin films.
  • Heat treatment processes such as brazing, carburising, and annealing use vacuum to get rid of surface contamination and to ensure higher quality treatment.
  • Vacuum technology is integral to the space industry where pressures similar to those in space need to be reproduced on Earth for equipment testing.
  • In pharmaceutical industries, vacuum technology is used in freeze drying (also known as lyophilization) of pharmaceutical products.
  • Vacuum technology is used in the manufacture of cathode ray tubes and microwave tubes, which are key components of televisions and radar systems.
  • Electron microscopy, which requires a high vacuum to function, utilises vacuum technology for the clearest and highest resolution imaging.