Urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. It provides important details about the body’s metabolism and can be used to diagnose various health conditions.

Physical Analysis

  • Colour: Normal urine colour ranges from pale yellow to deep amber. The colour is influenced by hydration levels and certain substances such as medicines or food dyes.
  • Clarity: Urine is typically clear. Cloudiness could indicate the presence of proteins, cells, or crystals.
  • Odour: Normal urine has a mild odour. If it has a strong smell, it could be due to diet, hydration levels or certain infections.

Chemical Analysis

  • pH level: The pH level of urine can indicate if it’s acidic or alkaline. Normal values range from 4.6 to 8.0. Abnormal pH levels might suggest kidney stones or urinary tract infections.
  • Glucose: Normally, no glucose is found in urine. Its presence could suggest diabetes or other conditions.
  • Protein: Small amounts of proteins are normal, but high protein levels could suggest a kidney disease.

Microscopic Analysis

  • Red and white blood cells: The presence of these cells in the urine sample can indicate infection, kidney disease, or urinary tract disorders.
  • Crystal: Very small crystals are normal, but bigger or numerous crystals can indicate a risk of kidney stones.
  • Bacteria and Yeasts: The presence of these microorganisms can signal an infection.

Significance of Urinalysis

  • Diagnosis: Urinalysis can help to identify diseases such as diabetes, kidney diseases, and urinary tract infections.
  • Screening: It can screen for diseases in their early stages where there are no symptoms.
  • Monitoring: Urinalysis can monitor disease progression and efficacy of treatment.

Remember, a single urinalysis cannot provide a definitive diagnosis. In most cases, your healthcare provider will use this in conjunction with other tests and your medical history to diagnose your condition.