Circuit Characteristics

Ohm’s Law

• Ohm’s Law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.
• This relationship can be expressed as V = I * R, where V is the voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance.

Series Circuits

• In a series circuit, all components are connected end-to-end, forming a single path for electrons to flow.
• The total resistance (R_total) in a series circuit equals the sum of the individual resistances: R_total = R1 + R2 + R3 etc.
• The total current (I_total) is the same across all components in the series circuit.

Parallel Circuits

• In a parallel circuit, components are connected alongside each other, creating multiple paths for the electrons to flow.
• The total resistance in a parallel circuit is calculated using the formula 1/R_total = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 etc.
• The total current in a parallel circuit equals the sum of the currents through each path.

Mixed Circuits

• Mixed circuits are a combination of series and parallel circuits.
• They often involve applying rules for both series and parallel circuits to different parts of the same circuit.

Circuit Elements

• Resistors are used to control the flow of electricity in a circuit.
• Capacitors store electric charge and can be used to smooth a direct current or block a direct current while allowing alternative current to pass.
• Inductors can store energy in their magnetic fields, and often used in analog circuits and signal processing.
• Transistors act as a switch or amplifier, helping to control the electrical output.

Kirchhoff’s Laws

• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the potential differences (voltages) in any loop or mesh in a network is always equal to zero.
• Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of currents that enter a junction or a point in a network equals the sum of currents leaving the same junction or point.