__Open borders __- free movement of people into and out of a country
Deregulation - the repeal of government control over an economy
__Diaspora __- a scattered population whose origin lies somewhere else geographically
__Post-accession migration __- movement of people from the eight post-communist central and Eastern European countries that came into the EU in 2004
__Extremism __- holding extreme political views
· Open EU borders has brought lots of cultural change.
- In 2004, eight Eastern European countries joined the EU (Poland/Slovakia/Bulgaria to name a few).
- Post-accession in migration followed soon after to the UK and Ireland.
- 1 million Eastern Europeans have migrated __causing the UKs population to go from __59.5 to 64.6 million in just ten years!
These migrants were welcomed by many.
- For example shop keepers saw an increase in profits due to more Polish customers.
Jobs that were hard to fill (farm hands) were taken upon.
However some locals worry that the migrants have increased birth rate beyond the capacity of the countries primary schools.
__British diaspora __has seeded itself in many other EU countries.
- UK residents began relocating to Mediterranean countries (France, Italy, and Spain) in 1993 when the first EU movements were allowed.
- Local __businesses thrived __and some locals even opened up British shops.
- However some younger ‘Brits’ have strained __cultural tensions __with indigenous communities.
Tension and Extremism
- Globalisation has increased the mixing of cultures and migration
- Open borders (Trade blocs, e.g. EU)
- Deregulation for TNCs and FDI
- Whilst also increasing levels of inequality within nations
- Low skilled workers in HICs have lost out to deindustrialisation and the relocation of TNC business
- Deregulation and the growing power of TNCs has led to reduced union rights and labour market protections – governments try to woo them
TNCs relocate as they wish
- Globalisation has increased the flow of economic migrants and trade blocs have encouraged even greater migration
- This has lead to widespread hostility and resentment, especially from insecure lower-middle class citizens and unskilled workers (inequality within nations)
- They are often affected by economic decline in certain areas due to deindustrialisation – ‘our jobs going abroad’ - Trump
- Frustrations about migrants seeming to ‘take’ jobs and claim ‘benefits’. General feeling that migration has caused depressed wages and underemployment
- There is also tension caused by _strain on services _(NHS, congestion, tube, house prices etc.)
Hostility or fear of migrant cultures taking over or causing clashes – _threatening national culture and identity _(esp. Islam)
- Growth of radicalisation and far right parties like National Front, EDL etc. Syrian refugee crisis has caused further tensions
Cultural diffusion is leading to greater cultural erosion through TNCs, global media, migration and tourism etc.
- Social tensions
- Conflicts between cultural values over dresscode, speech, sex(uality), diet, language, consumerism and traditional beliefs and religions (e.g. French language, Iran Barbie dolls, McDonaldisation, Islamic cartoons, Disney values etc.).
Also increasing conflict between younger and older generations.
- __Political tensions __– democratic values v autocratic cultures
- (protests and riots in Middle East – Arab Spring etc.), anti-Americanisation movements and terrorism (ISIS, Al Qaeda), Nationalism or isolationism due to fear of other cultures eroding identity and way of life
However… from terrorism,
- Most of the deaths last year (and every year) are in the Middle East and Africa—not the West. Iraq, Nigeria, Syria, Pakistan and Afghanistan together account for three-quarters of the global total.
- Western countries suffered under 3% of all deaths in the past 15 years.
Boko Haram, a jihadist group that operates mainly in northern Nigeria and Cameroon (and recently pledged affiliation to Islamic State), was responsible for over 6,600 deaths
The theory of globalisation is based on economic freedoms – know a liberalism.
It is the belief of free flows of people, capital, finance and resources.
However some countries and people do not favour liberalism at all.
- Across Europe, Australia and the USA, there have been many debates about migration controls.
The most extraordinary migration proposal was by Donald Trump (US president) during 2016 in which he said he would build a high wall right along the US/Mexico border.
- Debates in the UK have focused on limiting net migration – a difficult feat.
- This is due to EU law, skills shortages and a booming market in overseas university students.
- Two arguments used by opponents of immigration are:
- cheap migrant labour undercuts local wages
- Government has not planned for increased demands of welfare, education, housing and healthcare caused by these so called migrants.
- The free market can be a challenge for national governments.
- In 2016, cheap Chinese steel was being __‘dumped’ __onto global markets at prices heavily subsidised by the Chinese government in order to protect its own manufacturing firms.
- The consequences huge in the UK – Indian owners of Tata steel (UK’s largest steel company making 1 million a day) put all its UK plants up for sale.
•__Canada’s First Nations __–
The First Nations are the aboriginal peoples of Canada (currently 634 recognised groups) who had their land taken from then previously.
Now they are being given rights and being compensated including self government.
This has given them powers to protect their land and culture (traditions, land rights, religious beliefs).
E.g. In Alberta with Tar sands they have been given a 20km exclusion zone and awarded contracts to their own companies to exploit oil sands worth $100 million p.a.
Governments and Control
- China is a__ communist state__. As such globalisation presents a psychological challenge for its leaderships – the free flow of information and ideas pose a threat.
- The Chinese government also looks nervously at events like ‘Arab Spring’
- (a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups and civil wars in the Arab world that protested governments).
- It gives people ideas about democracy and less state control.
As a result the __Chinese government imposes censorship of its internet conten__t, as well as __published content (newspapers) i__n order to maintain control.
The two main types of censorship are:
- __State controlled __(e.g. Chinese News) – where print publishing and TV broadcasts are run by the state
- __State monitored __– where overseas contacts or media are monitored or censored. This includes TV, print media, radio, film, theatre, texts, video games, literature and the internet.
In 2005, the EU briefly banned imports of cheap Chinese textiles – especially women’s bras in attempt to protect its own manufacturers.
- Explain how attitudes and tensions have been created due to migration and globalisation. Diaspora, ethnic enclave, tensions, extremism, far right, cultural erosion
- Describe the ways that governments and people can attempt to control globalisation, using examples. Protectionism, censorship, tensions, first nations, imports, migration.
- In your opinion, what is the primary role of the government in a globalised world? Should governments control globalisation? Use examples.