Global Consumption

Energy Terminology

Energy security - uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price.

Long-term energy security mainly deals with timely investment or supply of energy in line with economic developments and environmental needs

Short-term energy security focuses on the ability of the energy system to reacts promptly to sudden changes in the balance between energy demand and supply.

Global Distribution of Fossil Fuel

__Measurements - __

Kilograms of oil equivalent per year (kgoe/yr)

Gigajoules (109joules) per year (Gj/yr) or exajoules (1018joules) per year (Ej/year)

Megawatt hours per year (MWh/yr)

Energy Security

It is usually evaluated at a __national level __– either countries are energy secure or not.

There are 4 important aspects to the supply side:

  1. Availability

  2. Accessibility

  3. Affordability

  4. Reliability

It requires an accurate prediction of future energy demands.

Countries that are likely to be most energy secure will meet all or most of their energy needs from within their boundaries.

Energy Mix Over Time in Countries

__Primary energy sources: __These are consumed in their raw form

  • Burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)
  • Nuclear Energy & Renewable sources

__Secondary Energy sources: __Electricity that is used by homes and businesses is a secondary source.

__Energy Intensity __

A measure of how efficiently a country is using energy. It is calculated as units of energy used per unit of GDP.

A high energy intensity indicates a high price or cost of converting energy into GDP.

It is generally recognised that energy intensity decreases with economic development: energy is used more efficiently and so the cost per unit of GDP becomes less.

Global Consumption, figure 1

Global Consumption, figure 2

Explain Patterns of Resource Distribution

Global Consumption, figure 1

Factors Influencing Consumption

The anthropogenic factors influencing energy consumption are often to do with socio-economic well being.

  • HIC consume much more energy than LIC due to their energy rich lifestyles.
Compare the UK and Norway’s energy consumption and security.