Bottom Up Development
These are Non-Governmental organisations (NGOs) who direct aid towards sustainable development. This is to target the poorest communities using appropriate technology and involving the local people.
Top Down Development
Top down occurs through the actions of governments and TNCs.
In the past countries wishing to develop often borrowed money from the World bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) but now the bulk of investment is through Transnational Corporations (TNCs).