Tenderise and marinate

Tenderise and marinate


  • Understanding the science behind making dough is important. Remember, yeast is a type of fungus that helps dough rise.
  • Dough can be made in different ways. For example, bread dough requires kneading, while pastry dough should be handled as little as possible.


  • Pasta is made from a simple dough of eggs and flour. Remember to rest the dough before rolling and shaping.
  • There are different methods of shaping pasta, such as by hand or using a pasta machine.


  • Pastry is a basic mixture of flour and fat, with the addition of other ingredients like sugar or eggs, depending on the recipe.
  • Rough puff, flaky, shortcrust, sweet shortcrust and choux are all types of pastry.

Cakes, Pastries and Biscuits

  • When baking, you will need to properly measure all ingredients to ensure the correct consistency and texture.
  • Different methods of cake making include the creaming, whisking, rubbing in, and melting methods.

Sauce Making

  • Starch-based sauces are made by combining a starch (like flour or cornstarch) with a liquid and a fat.
  • Reduction sauces are made by boiling or simmering a liquid until the volume is reduced and the flavor is concentrated.
  • Emulsion sauces, like hollandaise or mayonnaise, are made by slowly adding one ingredient to another while simultaneously mixing rapidly.

Use of the Cooker

  • Always preheat the oven to the desired temperature before introducing your food.
  • Use a timer as a reminder of when to check on your food. Testing for readiness is often as simple as observing the color and texture of the food, but internal temperature is also key especially for meats.

Use of Equipment

  • Familiarize yourself with different types of kitchen equipment, the purpose of each and how to safely operate them.
  • Proper cleaning and maintenance of equipment prolongs its lifespan and prevents food contamination.

Cooking Methods

  • Water-based cooking methods include boiling, steaming, and poaching.
  • Fat-based cooking methods include sautéing, deep-frying, and pan-frying.